Questão 1 - ENEM 2012


1) Na regulação de matérias culturalmente delicadas, como, por exemplo, a linguagem oficial, os currículos da educação pública, o status das Igrejas e das comunidades religiosas, as normas do direito penal (por exemplo, quanto ao aborto), mas também em assuntos menos chamativos, como, por exemplo, a posição da família e dos consórcios semelhantes ao matrimônio, a aceitação
de normas de segurança ou a delimitação das esferas pública e privada – em tudo isso refere-se amiúde apenas o autoentendimento ético-político de uma cultura majoritária, dominante por motivos históricos.

Por causa de tais regras, implicitamente repressivas, mesmo dentro de uma comunidade republicana que garanta formalmente a igualdade de direitos para todos, pode eclodir um conflito cultural movido pelas minorias desprezadas contra a cultura da maioria. 
HABERMAS, J. A inclusão do outro: estudos de teoria política. São Paulo: Loyola, 2002.
A reivindidação dos direitos culturais das minorias, como exposto por Habermas, encontra amparo nas democracias contemporâneas, na medida em que se alcança 


a) a secessão, pela qual a minoria discriminada obteria a igualdade de direitos na condição da sua concentração espacial, num tipo de independência nacional.
b) a reunificação da sociedade que se encontra fragmentada em grupos de diferentes comunidades étnicas, confissões religiosas e formas de vida, em torno da coesão de uma cultura política nacional.
c) a coexistência das diferenças, considerando a possibilidade de os discursos de autoentendimento se
submeterem ao debate público, cientes de que estarão vinculados à coerção do melhor argumento.
d) a autonomia dos indivíduos que, ao chegarem à vida adulta, tenham condições de se libertar das tradições de suas origens em nome da harmonia da política nacional.
e) o desaparecimento de quaisquer limitações, tais como lingaguem política ou distintas convenções de comportamento, para compor a arena política a ser compartilhada.

Resolução
 

O texto de Habermas adverte contra a tendência de formação de um padrão cultural majoritário e
dominante dentro das comunidades. A reivindicação dos direitos culturais de grupos minoritários, para escapar das tendências repressivas, exige a visibilidade dos fragmentos sociais, possibili -
tando a coexistência das expressões culturais diversas. 
 

Resposta Correta - C

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